Differential diagnosis of headaches definition, types ddx. Types of headaches while headaches can be caused by medical conditions, injuries, or infections, they are sometimes not due to a specific disease or other identified medical condition. This typically complicates migraine which is then transformed into a chronic daily headache similar to chronic tth often with some migrainous features. Diagnosis and treatment of headaches cleveland clinic. Sep 14, 2015 the headache came on suddenly, felt sharp, 710 in severity and radiated from the posterior occiput to his forehead on the right side. The diagnostic interview of headache syndromes child version is a new tool for enhancing the diagnosis of migraine in children and adolescents. For primary headaches, headache trigger trackers and headache diaries can be effective tools to help diagnosis the cause of your headaches.
Comprehensive eye examination headache comprehensive history 1. This computergenerated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. The differential diagnosis of headache plus focal findings is broad and workup should be guided by the patients profile of other risk factors. Headache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal 725 9. A small proportion of headache patients will present. Diagnosis and classification of primary headache disorders. Cluster headache is another primary headache that is part of the differential diagnosis for migraine without aura. Standards of care for headache diagnosis and treatment. Differential diagnosis for orofacial pain, including sinusitis, tmd, trigeminal neuralgia. It was a wonderful dinner last night and very heartwarming.
In the us population, the estimated annual prevalence for episodic tensiontype headache is 38. Evaluation of acute headaches in adults american family. Diagnostic clues should be derived primarily from history. The primary headache disorders are a collection of chronic illnesses characterized by repeated acute exacerbations, sometimes. Oct 23, 2007 chronic daily headaches cdhs refers to primary headaches that happen on at least 15 days per month, for 4 or more hours per day, for at least three consecutive months. The differential diagnosis of cdhs is challenging and should proceed in an orderly fashion. Headache attributed to trauma or injury to the head andor neck 6. In these visits, the most commonly diagnosed are the primary headache disorders. A headache is a pain that occurs in head and neck region. Headaches represent 2% of all emergency department visits. This new title in the abc series covers the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and management of the most common symptoms with. Feverweaknesssyncopealtered mental statusseizuredizziness and vertigoheadachesore throatdyspneachest painabdominal painnausea and vomitinggastrointestinal bleedingacute pelvic painback pain pathophysiology of headache cephalalgia sensation via.
Pdf headache is a frequent symptom in otorhinolaryngology. Sep 14, 2015 cardinal presentations this post is part of a series called cardinal presentations, based on rosens emergency medicine 8th edition. Conjunctival injection, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, miosis, eyelid edema. Such a secondary headache is typically caused by an organic disease in the head and neck. Credits can be earned by building a differential or looking up a diagnosis. A bout one fifth of the patients seen by a general neurologist in the uk will present with headache. Contreras p, cook c, physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of cervicogenic headache. Smith is on the nursing faculty at maric college, san diego, calif.
It may be a migraine sharp or throbbing pain, tensiontype headaches and cluster headaches. A detailed headache history helps to distinguish among the primary headache disorders. Cerebral venous thrombosis cvt headache is the most common symptom 80% to 90% of cases and the most common initial symptom in cvt. This is a pdf file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Differential diagnosis of orthostatic headache outline terms. Translations of all technical documents should follow these guidelines to ensure. Diagnosis and management of the primary headache disorders. Headache is usually found on the same side as the dissection and can occur with horner syndrome or tinnitus.
Postpartum headache is a common symptom with multiple causes. Acute headache in the emergency department journal. Someunansweredquestions relevant to the field of headache are also addressed. Headache associated with focal signs and symptoms headaches associated with focal signs and symptoms require a thorough workup to. Traumatic headaches localized or generalized pain, can mimic migraine or tension. Guidelines for all healthcare professionals in the diagnosis and management. Differential diagnosis of headache based on 3 questions how long have you been having headaches. Diagnosis the international headache society criteria2 are very helpful in the diagnosis of migraine. Churchills pocketbook of differential diagnosis 4th. If the duration is or 4 h, a cdh is likely and the differential diagnosis encompasses chronic migraine, chronic tensiontype headache, new daily persistent.
The following list of conditions have frontal headache or similar listed as a symptom in our database. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Headache is pain localised to any part of the head, behind the eyes or ears, or in the upper neck. To make an accurate diagnosis of migraine, it is important to be able to identify other types of headaches.
Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of headache. Headaches are classified on primary and secondary bases. Headaches can result from any of a number of causes, including genetic predisposition, trauma, an intracranial mass, a metabolic or vascular disease, or sinusitis. In these visits, the most commonly diagnosed are the primary headache disorders, most often migraine or tensiontype headache 24. Headache triggers episodic tensiontype headache diagnostic criteria clinical features of the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias diagnostic criteria for cluster headache etiologies of thunderclap headache differential diagnosis of headache with fever. Some headaches are extremely debilitating and have significant impact on an individuals quality of life. The global campaign to reduce the burden of headache worldwide in collaboration with. A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the head occipital, or in the back of the upper neck. Not unexpectedly, the differential diagnosis of this highly prevalent symptom is vast, with over 300 different headache types and etiologies. Primary headaches, such as tension headaches, are diagnosed clinically, sometimes using diagnostic criteria the most commonly used are published by the international headache society, ihs. Red flags for secondary disorders include sudden onset of headache, onset of headache after 50 years of age, increased frequency or severity of headache, new onset of headache with an underlying medical condition.
Primary headaches, such as tension headaches, are diagnosed clinically, sometimes using diagnostic criteria. Secondary headaches are characterized by excruciating pain, usually caused by another, more serious, condition. Headache is one of the most frequent problems in daily general medical practice. Assessment of acute headache in adults differential. Prevalence of migraine in patients with a history of self. Most patients are assessed in the relative peace and calm of the outpatient clinic, and their management is dealt with elsewhere in this supplement. Pdf differential diagnosis of headaches researchgate. Epidemiology of headache prevalence headaches are the most prevalent neurological disorders and among the most frequent symptoms seen in general practice. New onset explosive acute posttraumatic headache subarachnoid hemorrage thunderclap headache carotid disection stroke pituitary apoplexy new onset, gradual, progressive for hours, days or weeks. Differential diagnosis of chronic headache jmaj 473. In a patient with a prior history of migraine, worsening of headache in response to head trauma is considered to be an aggravation of migraine. A primary headache is not a symptom of an underlying disease or condition. Acute headache accounts for about 3% of acute medical unit admissions 1 and up to 8% of emergency room attendances 2. As the name suggests, ch involves a grouping of headaches, usually over a period of several weeks.
Differential diagnosis of dizziness yvonne chan introduction dizziness is a nonspeci. Clinicians typically use a persons description of their headache, in combination with an examination, to determine the type of headache. Then try this headache mnemonic for usmle step 2 cs. Headache is a symptom commonly encountered in everyday clinical practice, and, according to the who, one of the ten most common causes of functional disability. The approach begins with a search for red flags that suggest the possibility of a secondary headache. Headache knowledge for medical students and physicians. Although a headache may be associated with a serious medical condition, most headaches are not serious, even when debilitating. Finally, in this section of the article, you will be able to get access to the abc of emergency differential diagnosis pdf free download file in. Some are fatal or lifethreatening and some are harmless. Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure or progressive neurological disease. Medicationoveruse headache 4% to 5% of the general population suffer from cdh up to 80% of patients consulting for headache in headache clinics suffer from cdh 80% of chronic migraine is moh overuse of acute medications is the most important risk factor for chronic daily headache butalbital 47% acetaminophen 45. Differential diagnosis headache made easy with mnemonics. Jan 02, 2019 headache is a common reason for pediatric patients to seek medical care. Chronic daily headaches cdhs refers to primary headaches that happen on at least 15 days per month, for 4 or more hours per day, for at least three consecutive months.
The pdf link is available at the last part of this post. Headache attributed to nonvascular intracranial disorder 7 8. Let us share with you people a famous series diagnosis book churchills pocketbook of differential diagnosis pdf 4th edition pdf free along with download link. Baseline data including characteristics of typical prestudy headaches, mean hit6 score, and percentage of patients satisfied with prestudy headache. Headache attributed to a substance or its withdrawal 9. A headache, like a chest pain or back ache, has many causes. Headache attributed to nonvascular intracranial disorder 8. Acute headache is a common presentation to emergency departments and. The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd. Pdf the differential diagnosis of chronic daily headaches. Headaches can be caused by a wide variety of factors, but the overwhelming majority are of the tensionmigraine type.
It is characterized by headache pain and 2 of the following symptoms. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with a history of selfreported or physiciandiagnosed sinus headache who were assigned ihs 1. The approach to the headache history given in table 3 and discussed in the following sections facilitates the generation of a differential diagnosis and preliminary classification of the headache. Clinical privileges update form department of neurology. Most common causes are migraines and tensiontype headaches. The differential diagnosis of chronic daily headaches. Posttraumatic headache is diagnosed only when a new type of headache begins for the first time within 7 days of head or neck injury. Differential diagnosis of headache based on 3 questions author.
About 90% of men and 95% of women have at least one headache per year. An additional criterion is a normal clinicalneurological finding 1. Tensiontype headache is very common and may last from 30 minutes to 7 days per episode. Diagnosis and treatment of headache in the ambulatory care setting. Headache is one of the most common symptoms in primary care 12 3 and can lead to relevant reduction of healthrelated quality of life for the individual patient. For each type of acute headache there is a fairly well defined differential diagnosis. Tensiontype headache definition tensiontype headache tth is the most common form of headache. Case examples to pediatric headaches set the stage clinical. Plasma vitamin c is lower in postherpetic neuralgia patients and administration of vitamin c reduces spontaneous pain but not brushevoked pain. Also, the abc of emergency differential diagnosis pdf free download file is on an online repository for the safer downloading of the file.
This article discusses migraine diagnosis and what is known about migraine as an episodic state of altered brainfunction. Diagnosis, differential diagnosis, therapy primary headache like migraine or tension headache are very common among women at the age of 20 to 45 years. Usually it is easy to differentiate between cluster. Headache society classification and diagnostic criteria can help physicians differentiate primary headaches e. Headache consortium18 recently developed evidencebased guidelines for the use of neuroimaging in patients with nonacute headache i. Headache is one of the most common physical complaints. Sign in with your personal account to earn and claim cme credits through visualdx. Treatment of acute nontraumatic headache protocol hamilton. Pdf top 10 differential diagnoses in family medicine. Are you having trouble remembering all the important questions to ask during your patient encounter. Differential diagnosis for migraine not for sale or. Abc of emergency differential diagnosis pdf free download.
A practical guide to the diagnosis and treatment of acute symptoms and conditions, the abc of emergency differential diagnosis pdf provides a stepbystep guide to emergency differential diagnosis for nonspecialists in a hospital or primary care setting. Aids to management of headache disorders in primary care 2nd. Headache is one of the highly tested cases on usmle step 2 cs since it is very common. Imaging plays an important role in differential diagnosis of secondary forms. Langner s, kirsch m, hosten n radiological diagnosis and differentialdiagnosis of headache. Headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder 694 7.
Aids for management of common headache disorders in primary care. Headache is an extremely common symptom and collectively headache disorders are among the most common of the nervous system disorders, with a prevalence of 48. Secondary manifestations of cluster headache as a result of inflammatory or neoplastic. Headaches associated with focal signs and symptoms require a thorough workup to exclude mass lesions, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, a vascular pathologic condition, or infection. Headache attributed to cranial or cervical vascular disorder 7. Lidocaine eye drops attenuate pain associated with ophthalmic postherpetic neuralgia. What is orthostasis, orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic headache what can gravity do to the head and neck what is dural traction and why does it hurt nonsih causes of orthostatic ha diagnostic definitions of sih what matters. New drugs effective for migraine, including triptan, have been released. Kodi archive and support file vintage software community software apk msdos cdrom software cdrom software library. Traditional diagnostic studies laboratory studies, radiology, pathology cannot verify the diagnosis. Headache types mixedcomorbid time days 0 30 60 symptoms evaluation of headache detailed history physical examination neurological examination formulate a differential diagnosis laboratory tests treatment followup post surgical headache poor documentation of post surgical headaches in general headache following epilepsy surgery is.
Diagnosis and management of the primary headache disorders in. Headache can be differentiated in primary and secondary forms. Asking the right questions is the key to make the correct diagnosis. Understanding headache classification and diagnosis. The diagnosis of cluster headache is made clinically according to the criteria set out in the international classification of headache disorders ichdii box 1.
It can be categorized into three subtypes according to the international classification of headache disorders based on headache frequency. Around 95% of the general population have experienced headache at some stage in their life with a 1year prevalence of nearly one in two adults. The international classification of headache disorders. The three most common of those types of primary headaches are tension, cluster, and migraine headaches. Noted gradual onset of palpitations while at rest, describing a pounding sensation lasting 34 hours and persistent though improved on presentation. Jun 07, 2019 cluster headache ch, also known as histamine headache, is a primary neurovascular primary headache disorder, the pathophysiology and etiology of which are not well understood. New tool aids in diagnosis of pediatric migraine medscape.
As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. Headache attributed to disorder of homoeostasis 749 11. Some authorities believe that clinical criteria alone are. The headache was associated with vertigo and nauseavomiting. Patients description of headaches, swelling of the lower extremities, consecutive uncontrolled hypertensive blood pressures, combined with the potential for chronic hypertensive damage leading to organ dysfunction, provides rationale for this differential diagnosis. Atypical migraines with neurological findings basilar, ophthalmoplegic, ophthalmic, hemiplegic minutes to days. This article will discuss the differential diagnosis of headaches, types of headaches, and when you should be really concerned about your headache. Headache continues to be a frequent cause of emergency department ed use, accounting for 2% of all visits to u.
Physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of. Dizziness is among the most common complaints leading to a visit to a physician for all age groups. Imaging should be performed in patients with concomitant systemic or neurologic symptoms. Migraine headache in adults differential diagnosis. Not unexpectedly, the differential diagnosis of this highly prevalent symptom is. Migraine diagnosis although originally developed to ensure uniformity of diagnosis to assist with research in the headache field, the. Cervicogenic headache describes pain referred to the head from a source in the cervical spine. For differential diagnosis medical students must have churchills pocketbook of differential diagnosis on their study table. View enhanced pdf access article on wiley online library html view download pdf for offline viewing.
Surgery to correct organic disease is occasionally indicated. Most serious causes are meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and temporal arteritis. Differential diagnosis in obstetrics and gynaecology an a. This is a pdf file of an unedited manuscript that has. Hing differential diagnosis and classification of neck. Case examples to pediatric headaches set the stage.1092 839 1217 559 173 702 30 1154 574 917 1457 850 450 1504 1372 1227 1205 317 828 123 113 1627 827 284 194 1098 1063 1035 330 1317 607 1103 250 1444 480 565 1354 659