Benefits of using unit production system ups line over. In the power systems analysis field of electrical engineering, a perunit system is the expression. The base power may be the rating of a single piece of. Every time you cross the transformers, the currents and voltages change.
Some commonly used substation reliability indices are listed below. If, for example, the output is increased to 1020 units from units and the total cost to produce these units is rs. The principle advantages of decentralized air conditioning systems is lower initial costs, simplified installation, no ductwork or pipes, independent zone control, and less floor space requirements for mechanical room, ducts and pipes. Circuits are simplified voltages have same range in per unit in all. So much so, it shows up in all exams pertaining to power. Capacity cost rates were derived per unit by obtaining a ratio of. The perunit system offers computational simplicity by eliminating units and expressing system quantities as dimensionless ratios. Any quantity is converted into per unit quantity by dividing the numeral value by the chosen base value of the same dimension.
Just imagine you are in the united states and need to compare measurements with someone elsewhere in the world. Elec0014 introduction to power and energy systems the. Pdf is often associated with paperless office and used for printing and designing. Here, the cost unit is determined by the type of service industry the business belongs to, and it usually differs from company to company. Per unit system allows the system operator to overlook abnormalities in the system easily.
Although powersystem analysis is now done by computer, results are often expressed as perunit values on a convenient systemwide base. Usually, the per unit quantities being of the order of unity or less can easily be handled with a digital computer. Vin per unit vin kvv base in kv where the base value is a reference value for magnitude. Threephase per unit system the same advantages apply to a threephase system if the following rules are obeyed. For example, a transient voltage reaching a maximum of 1. The per unit system overview page 1 of 6 overview the per unit system is based on the formula shown in equation 1. As with any system, it suits some buildings, applications, and climates better than others. Find the bus impedance matrix for the system whose reactance diagram is shown in fig. Per unit fault calculations is a method whereby system impedances and quantities are normalised across different voltage levels to a common base. Advantages of information systems in health services article pdf available in choregia 52 january 2009 with 7,389 reads how we measure reads. This makes the per unit value of either voltage or current to be around 1. The per unit system was developed to make manual analysis of power systems easier. The cost per unit is mainly calculated in service costing. When values are expressed in pu, the comparison of electrical quantities with their normal values is straightforward.
The per unit value of any quantity is defined as the ratio of actual value in any unit to the base or reference value in the same unit. Advantages and disadvantages of per unit system in power system analysis, per unit pu system is used to express a physical variable as a fraction of base or reference value. There is a lot of production system available in the production floor including bundle production system, progressive line production system, straight line system, unit production system etc. It would be very difficult to continually have to refer impedances to the different sides of the transformers this problem is avoided by a normalization of all variables. Manufacturers usually specify the impedance of a device or machine in per unit on the base of the name. Per unit analysis per unit system power system analysis. Source impedance for fault analysis is furnished in per unit. The metric system was chiefly a product of french scientists in the wake of their nations own revolution in 1789. Per unit pu systems are used by engineers to quantify equipment parameters in terms of their nameplate ratings. Nov 11, 2016 if the actual impedance is z ohms, its per unit system definition value is given by. The parameters of the rotating electrical machines and the transformer lie roughly in the same range of numerical values irrespective of their ratings if expressed in per unit system of their. Unit 4 module 6 absorption costing and marginal costing.
The perunit system conventional units of measurement for voltage, current, power and impedance are for instance. Per unit system explaination with solved example free download as powerpoint presentation. Per unit quantities simply theoretical deduction and give them more generalizes forms. Circuits are simplified voltages have same range in per unit in all parts of the system from ehv. Or in the other words, per unit is a scaling system to make calculation process in analyzing an electrical network system easier, b. Perunit equivalent reactance network of a three phase power system, numerical problems. The perunit value of any quantity is defined as the ratio of actual value in any unit to the base or reference value in the same unit. Aug 02, 2018 prebook pen drive and g drive at teacademy. By definition, the per unit value of a quantity is the ratio of the original quantity to its base value which results in a dimensionless per unit or pu value. Unit ations maizelegumes fact sheet 7 found that maize yielded 5. Per unit system per unit system is when we normalize the voltage and current at each location.
Centralized vs decentralized air conditioning systems. In key factor analysis, the contribution per unit is first calculated for each product, then a contribution per unit of scarce resource is calculated by working out how much of the scarce resource each unit requires in its production. Apr 28, 2016 in power system analysis, per unit pu system is used to express a physical variable as a fraction of base or reference value. Per unit notation in per unit notation, the physical quantity isin per unit notation, the physical quantity is expressed as a fraction of the reference vava ue. Per unit systems is an important concept in power system analysis. Pros and cons of variable refrigerant flow systems by alex tompsidis as a system, variable refrigerant flow vrf has a lot to offer in terms of efficiency, running costs, flexibility in use, and control. The per unit system is a method of expressing quantities in an electrical system e. The reason the per unit system is employed is because it simplifies calculation of currents. A great benefit of decentralized systems is that they can be individually metered at the unit. Biphasic delivery systems, compressed minitablets, encapsulated coated systems, granules, minitablets, pellets. Introduction multi unit dosage forms he goal of any drug delivery system is to. Per unit system explaination with solved example electrical.
By removing the impact of varying voltages, the necessary calculations are simplified. The result is the singlephase per unit impedance diagram. The \per unit system converting in per unit two magnetically coupled circuits converting in per unit two magnetically coupled circuits fluxcurrent relations. To use the per unit method, we normalise all the system impedances and admittances within the network under. The per unit system offers computational simplicity by eliminating units and expressing system quantities as dimensionless ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of per unit system instrumentation. It will be convenient for analysis of power system if the voltage, power, current and impedance rating of components of power system are expressed with reference to a common value called base value. There are mainly two advantages of using the per unit system. Nov 11, 2019 pdf is often associated with paperless office and used for printing and designing. A common threephase voltampere base is used throughout the system, where sbase,3.
Although power system analysis is now done by computer, results are often expressed as per unit values on a convenient system wide base. This cost is inherent not only in establishing the system but. It helps to decide and produce a definite number of goods per unit of time, which will be most favorable to the business and growth of the company. Question bank with solved 2 mark qs power system analysis. Per unit pu is commonly used for the calculation of voltage, current, impedance, and power in power flow and related calculations. Pdf advantages of information systems in health services. For a power system, practical choice of base values are. Pdf can be opened on any device with any operating system in exactly the same form in which it was created. Advantages and disadvantages of pdf format logaster. Jun 24, 2019 per unit systems is an important concept in power system analysis. Its fundamental unit of length was the meter, which, while similar to the yard used in the english system, was actually rooted in something concrete namely, onemillionth of the distance from one of the earths poles to the equator. Computer methods in power systems notes pdf cmps notes pdf.
Generally base values of power and voltage are chosen. Computer methods in power systems notes pdf cmps notes. A per unit system preserving symmetry of inductance matrices is called reciprocal. Jan 15, 2015 the computation effort in power system is very much reduced with thee use of per unit quantities. Most of the professionals and experts in the industry misinterpret performance management as some kind of appraisal system or performance appraisal program.
Pdf activitybased costing system advantages and disadvantages. Activitybased costing system advantages and disadvantages. In many respects the method is similar to the use of percentage values. A production system may be defined as the means by which we transform resource inputs to create useful goods and services as outputs. It ends with a short discussion of perunit systems and power system representation. Advantages and disadvantages of per unit system engineering. Per unit system definition per unit representation of.
The components or various sections of power system may operate at different voltage and power levels. Per unit impedance of transformers is the same referred to either side of it. While performing calculations, referring quantities from one side of the transformer to the other side serious errors may be committed. May 26, 2019 the reason the per unit system is employed is because it simplifies calculation of currents. While performing calculations, referring quantities from one side of the transformer to the other side. The generators perunit voltage is the transmission lines perunit impedance is the other base quantities are 10 0 41. Per unit calculations a key problem in analyzing power systems is the large number of transformers. The computation effort in power system is very much reduced with thee use of per unit quantities. Like, in the case of goods transport it is tonnemiles. Disadvantages of using the english system of measurement. In a threephase system rather than obtaining the per unit system definition values using per phase base quantities, the per unit values can be obtained directly by using threephase base quantities. For the analysis of electrical machines or electrical machine system, different values are required, thus, per unit system provides the value for voltage, current.
Voltages have same range in per unit in all parts of the system from ehv system to distribution and. Imagine a 3phase system with a generator, a transformer, a tline, another transformer, and a load. In power system analysis, per unit pu system is used to express a physical variable as a fraction of base or reference value. Per unit pu system advantages and disadvantages in power system analysis, per unit pu system is used to express a physical variable as a fraction of base or reference value. Pharmaceutical minitablets, its advantages, formulation. The perunit system was developed to make manual analysis of power systems easier. Voltages, currents and impedances expressed in per unit do not change when they are referred from one side of transformer to the. Sep 07, 2019 the result is the singlephase per unit impedance diagram. This can be a pronounced advantage in power system analysis where large numbers of. Per unit identities university of minnesota duluth. Per unit system is the ratio between the actual value in any unit and the base or reference value in the same unit. If the actual impedance is z ohms, its per unit system definition value is given by. Per unit data representation yields valuable relative magnitude information.1594 378 1613 1367 349 1508 1351 1466 1342 821 289 1297 1272 91 723 578 1116 1100 613 377 519 167 883 939 83 212 1076 1041 803 1051 1492 594 410 1392 1195 1321 1308 406 84 580 1165 538 1475 1087 860